Hello Readers, in today's article we will discuss the Planer Machine in brief along with its Definition, Parts, Types, Working Principle, Operations, Specifications, Applications, Advantages, and Disadvantages. So, Let's start this session with the definition of Planer Machine.
A Planer is a machine tool which is just like a shaper machine designed to produce flat surfaces or planes by means of a single-point cutting tool employed for machining heavy jobs which are not possible by shaper machine. The Tool is fixed whereas the worktable (workpiece) reciprocates over the tool.
The parts of Planer machine along with its functioning is as follows.
The bed of a planer machine is prepared by means of the casting process and as it is a large component we cannot prepare them by the machining process. So, always the larger components undergo casting only.
The bed was prepared in such a way that it has the ability to absorb the vibrations induced in the machine during various operations. Mostly Cast iron is taken as a material for the bed part of the planer.
The worktable is a movable part and the tool is a fixed part, therefore the worktable can be run by means of a hydraulic cylinder or by a pinion-gear mechanism.
The upper surface of the worktable has T slots for clamping the workpiece and the sides of the worktable have a groove for planer reversing dogs.
Housing or Column:
It is a hollow column that can withstand a huge amount of loads without deflection and is fastened at the bottom of the machine bed.
Two columns will rise vertically from the sides of the machine/frame on a double housing planer, as they will support the cross rail and the saddle.
As discussed, it is mounted on the top of the housing. It slides up and down on the flatways which are controlled either by hand or by machine.
The weight of cross-rails was very high and that's the reason they are counterweighted by means of hydraulic cylinders or Cast iron weights.
The tool head contains a tool post which holds the cutting tool to do the machining operations.
On the ways of cross rail, the saddle is fitted. There are two saddles located on the planer machine, one is for the right tool head and the other is for the left tool head.
To machine wider workpieces, time taken will be very high by the usage of the Shaper Machine. Therefore, to minimize this time, more than one cutting tool will be used for removing the material simultaneously from one workpiece itself.
But for mounting more than one tool, more than one ram is required and it is nothing but more than one shaping machine will be placed parallel and is not at all preferable.
More than one cutting tool will be fixed onto a beam and allow the workpiece to reciprocate with variable speed (like optimum speed in forwarding stroke and maximum speed in return stroke). This process is called as Planing Operation or Planing Machine.
In this Planer, the workpiece will be under reciprocating motion and the tool is stationary and due to this, the material removal takes place.
The return stroke will be the idle stroke and it is due to the mechanism called Whitworth Quick return motion mechanism.
Below is the diagram of Whitworth Quick return motion mechanism.
The different types of Planer Machines are as follows.
The Double housing type planer consists of two upright vertical columns which can support a cross-rail. They are employed for machining of guiding surfaces, dovetails, large beds of machines, etc.
Due to the longer planing length, a large number of components will be machined in a short period of time.
It is a old type of machine which is widely used in various workshops.
Pit Type Planer:
Open Side Planer:
Edge Planer Machine:
Divided Table Planer:
The various operations that are performed in the Planer Machine are as follows.
The Planer Machine Specifications are as follows.
The applications of Planer machine are as follows.
The advantages of Planer machine are as follows.
The disadvantages of Planer machine are as follows.
This is the detailed explanation on Planer Machine. If any one has any doubts, you can ask us and we will reply as soon as possible.
A Planer is a machine tool which is just like a shaper machine designed to produce flat surfaces or planes by means of a single-point cutting tool employed for machining heavy jobs which are not possible by shaper machine.
In shaper machine, the workpiece is fixed and tool reciprocates whereas in the Planer Machine, the tool is fixed and the worktable reciprocates.
The five types of planer are Double housing Planer Machine, Open side Planer Machine, Pit Planer Machine, Edge or Plate Planer machine, and Divided table Planer Machine.
The planer machine works on the principle of Whitworth Quick return motion mechanism.
More Resources:Difference between Shaper and Planer Machine