A supercharger is an air compressor used for forced induction of air into an internal combustion engine whereas Turbocharger works on the exhaust gases from the cylinder for better efficiency.
In this article, I will be explaining about Supercharger VS Turbocharger and their working principle, Components along with Advantages and Disadvantages.
The process of forcing more charge into the engine cylinder than can be drawn by naturally aspirated piston action to get more power is called Supercharger.
The four main components of a centrifugal supercharger are
It is fitted before the Intake valve of the cylinder so that air can be compressed in the supercharger and allowed it to be forced into the cylinder via the Intake valve. It is used to increase engine power, efficiency, torque by compressing the air in multi-stages for increasing the quantity of air, pressure, and temperature.
The greater mass flow-rate provides more oxygen to support combustion in the cylinder compared to the naturally aspirated engine.
Supercharger allows more fuel to be burned and thereby more work is said to be done per cycle which increases the power output of the engine.
The Power to the supercharger comes mechanically from the engine's crankshaft via a belt, gear, shaft, or chain.
Super Charger increases the pressure of the A/F mixture and supplies at a higher pressure than atmospheric pressure.
The supercharged engine produces higher power up to 40% to that of the normal engine.
It also increases torque by 40%.
At higher altitudes, it helps by increasing the density of the air fed to the engine.
According to the method of compression, there are two main types of superchargers.
A Positive Displacement Pump has a decreasing cavity on the discharge side and an expanding cavity on its suction side.
A/F mixture enters the impeller at the center and passes through the impeller and diffuser vanes. Finally, it enters volute casing and the mixture goes to the engine from the casing.
In Root's Supercharger, there are two rotors of epicycloids shape, each rotor keyed to its shaft.
Here are some advantages of Supercharger:
There are some disadvantages of Supercharger and those are:
It is a device driven by a turbine and it is used to increase the performance and efficiency of an Internal Combustion Engine, by putting more compressed air to the engine cylinder.
The components of Turbocharger is as follows:
It is a centrifugal compressor which is powered by a turbine that is driven by means of engine's exhaust gases.
Engine's volumetric efficiency can be improved by increasing the intake density.
The turbine converts the engine exhaust pressure energy and kinetic energy into rotational power, which is in turn used to drive the compressor.
The difference between Supercharger and Turbocharger is shown in the Tabular column below.
|They are basically compressors.||Turbos consist of both- turbine & air compressor mounted on the same shaft.|
|They draw power from the engine via a belt.||Turbocharger extracts the power from exhaust gases.|
|Cost of Supercharger is less than the Turbocharger||Cost of Turbocharger is more than the Supercharger|
|The supercharger is connected to the intake manifold of the vehicle.||Since it is a combination of both turbine & compressor, the turbine is connected to exhaust pipe while compressor to intake.|
|Less Efficient||More Efficient|
|Maintenance is Easy.||Difficult to maintain|
|Suitable for engines with smaller displacements.||Suitable for engines with higher displacements.|
|As soon as the engine starts, Superchargers start working.||Turbos won't start operating until a sufficient amount of exhaust gases are produced.|
This is a detailed explanation of the Supercharger and Turbocharger, and also I mentioned the difference between Supercharger and Turbo Charger. If you have any doubts, feel free to ask in the comments section.